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Dr. Jeffrey F. Scott is a board-certified Mohs micrographic surgeon and board-certified dermatologist in the Baltimore area who focuses on Mohs micrographic surgery, complex cutaneous reconstruction after Mohs surgery, the surgical management of high-risk non-melanoma skin cancer, melanoma, and rare skin cancers, and the management of skin cancer in transplant recipients. He serves as the Director of the Cutaneous Surgery and Oncology Unit at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. #Dematologist #JohnsHopkins #MohsSurgeon
Institute of Cancer Research in London Gene isolates that allow melanoma cells to spread#Research #moleculardrills #skin #cancercellsThe cancer cells of the skin produce "molecular forests" to penetrate healthy tissues and spread around the body, according to research that increases the prospect of new therapies for the disease. The researchers used robotic microscopy to capture the formation of exercises by melanoma cells which were cultivated in 3D material of the skin in the laboratory. The exercises help the tumor cells to fix and puncture the holes in the cells and the surrounding structures, allowing cancer to move beyond the site where it forms and reaches other tissues and organs. "This is the first time that this type of change in cell form has been associated with any type of metastatic cancer," said Chris Bakal, professor of cancer morphodynamics at the London Cancer Research Institute. Melanoma levels have more than doubled in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, with more than 16,000 people newly diagnosed with the disease each year. At first, tumors can often be eliminated by surgeons, but cancer becomes more difficult to treat because it spreads to other parts of the body. Bakal and his colleagues cultivated melanoma cells in a 3D matrix rich in collagen, one of the main proteins found in the skin. By exhausting the genes in cancer cells one by one, they discovered a particular gene, Arhgef9, which was crucial for the formation of molecular exercises. The gene is found in all human cells, but in adults, it tends to be activated in brain cells to help them establish new connections. Much earlier in human development, the gene allows neurons to produce their own drill structures, which help cells spread through the body and wire the nervous system. By writing in the journal ISCIENCE, the researchers describe how the deactivation of the ARHGEF9 gene in the melanoma cells has destabilized molecular exercises so that cancer can no longer fix and engage in neighboring tissues. The observation increases hopes of new therapies for melanoma and possibly other cancers, such as neuroblastoma, which can spread in the same way. Although the mutations of the ARHGEF9 gene are linked to a wide range of neurological disorders, the gene is considered more important during early development than to adulthood. If this is the case, the development of drugs to inhibit the gene could block the spread of melanoma without serious side effects. "We believe that the disarmament of the exercise is likely to have a general demand," said Bakal, although it suspects that the process will not be relevant for all melanomas. Because the gene is very active in this metastatic
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I have Stage 3c melanoma skin cancer. I’ve had multiple surgeries, quarterly CT scans, needle biopsies and much more! This is an overview of everything I have gone through so far. I will have my 4th (of 12) treatment next week at Memorial Sloan Kettering. I am on Opdivo for 1 year. If you have any questions for you, leave it in the comments and I can get back to you. :-)—————————-Taken from Cancer.org August 2022 This explains exactly what I’ve been told by doctors and explains how it’s given to patients. Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to help a person’s own immune system recognize and destroy cancer cells more effectively. Several types of immunotherapy can be used to treat melanoma.Immune checkpoint inhibitors:An important part of the immune system is its ability to keep itself from attacking normal cells in the body. To do this, it uses “checkpoints,” which are proteins on immune cells that need to be turned on (or off) to start an immune response. Melanoma cells sometimes use these checkpoints to avoid being attacked by the immune system. But these drugs target the checkpoint proteins, helping to restore the immune response against melanoma cells.PD-1 inhibitors:Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and nivolumab (Opdivo) are drugs that target PD-1, a protein on immune system cells called T cells that normally help keep these cells from attacking other cells in the body. By blocking PD-1, these drugs boost the immune response against melanoma cells. This can often shrink tumors and help people live longer.They can be used to treat melanomas:-That can’t be removed by surgery-That have spread to other parts of the body-After surgery (as adjuvant treatment) for certain stage II or III melanomas to try to lower the risk of the cancer coming backThese drugs are given as an intravenous (IV) infusion, typically every 2 to 6 weeks, depending on the drug and why it's being given.
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